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04-Dec-2021   
Path: RAMI-IV : EXPERIMENTS : ACTUAL CANOPIES : JARVSELJA SUMMER PINESTAND
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Järvselja Pine Stand (Summer): HET07_JPS_SUM

This page provides descriptions of the architectural, spectral and illumination related properties of a 124 year old Pinus sylvestris stand located at 58° 18′ 47.13″ N 27° 17′ 48.23″ E, The stand was inventoried in the summer 2007 by Andres Kuusk, Joel Kuusk, Mait Lang, Tõnu Lükk, Matti Mõttus, Tiit Nilson, Miina Rautiainen, and Alo Eenmäe of the Tartu Observatory, in Tõravere, Estonia as well as the Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia. Potential RAMI participants thus are to treat the information presented on this page as actual 'inventory data', that is, they should identify/extract those parameters and characteristics that are required as input to their canopy reflectance models. In some cases this may mean that simplifications have to be made to the available information, or, that parts of the available information cannot be - or have to be modified before being - exploited with a given radiative transfer model. Whatever the case may be, all potential RAMI participants should mimic the standard practices that they use when matching actual field measurements to the required set(s) of input parameters for their model(s). If this means that you need more information than provided, please do not hesitate in contacting us. Last but not least, for those 3D models capable of maintaining architectural fidelity down to the individual shoot and branch level a series of ASCII (text) files containing the Cartesian coordinates of various geometric primitives (triangles, spheres and cylinders) and their transformations will be given.

In order to facilitate the generation of the Järvselja Scots Pine (Summer) forest the information on this page has been subdivided into four different categories. For each one of these categories the relevant descriptions will be contained within a uniquely coloured text frame and can be accessed by clicking on one of the four links below:

architectural
characteristics
spectral
characteristics
illumination
characteristics
measurements
characteristics

In case of difficulties or missing data on this page please do not hesitate in contacting us so that the problems may be resolved as fast as possible.


Architectural information up

1) General canopy characteristics

The Järvselja Scots Pine forest inventory was carried out over a 100×100 m² area placing the origin of the coordinate system at its south-western end. In order to include also the tree crowns of the inventoried tree locations within the RAMI Scots Pine Summer stand representation it was necessary to expand the scene area slightly beyond one hectare. Maintaining the origin of the tree location coordinate system thus resulted in some negative x,y values in the table below. Overall architectural characteristics of the scene are thus as follows:

Scene dimensions:( X × Y × Z) 105.932 × 106.118 × 18.560 [m × m × m]
(Xmin, Ymin, Zmin) −2.773, −3.623, 0.0 [m, m, m]
(Xmax, Ymax, Zmax) 103.159, 102.495, 18.560 [m, m, m]
Number of trees in scene 1120 (1114 pine, 6 birch)
Leaf Area Index of scene* 2.3020 (2.2881 pine, 0.0139 birch)
Fractional scene coverage** 0.406
*The LAI of the pine trees is computed using half the total area of the needles in a shoot.
**The fractional cover is defined as 1 - direct transmission at zero solar zenith angle.

2) Foliage structure

The table below provides the structural characteristics of the Scots Pine shoots (left) and the birch leaves (right). Individual shoots of the Scots Pine trees are generated in using most of the properties presented in Table 1 of Smolander et al., 2003 (RSE). The shape of individual birch tree leaves is approximated from photographs as depicted in the right hand picture. RT models capable of representing the architecture of individual foliage elements with a series of geometric primitives (triangle, sphere, cylinder) may want to use the information provided in the ASCII (text) files accessible from the last row in each table below.

Scots pine shoot
Birch tree leaf
number of needles 190
total needle area* 122.98 cm²
needle length 2.85 cm
needle diameter 0.092 cm
angle between twig and needle 40.5°
fascicle angle 0 - 27.7°
twig length 7.7 cm
twig diameter 0.3 cm
structural description file (geometric primitives) click here
leaf length (excluding twig) 6.92 cm
Max. radial leaf extension away from the twig-to-tip axis 2.58 cm
one sided leaf area 20.7 cm²
twig length 0.5 cm
twig diameter 0.3 cm
leaf curl none
structural description file (triangle mesh) click here
* This total needle area value arises if the needles are represented as elongated spheres (as is the case in the ASCII file accessible via
the link in the last row of the above left-side table). If individual needles are represented as cylinders (with discs as endcaps) then the
total needle area of the shoot is 159.03 cm². The number of shoots per pine tree should be adjusted accordingly.

3) Tree structure

The Järvselja Scots Pine forest is generated on the basis of 11 individual tree representations. Ten of these pertain to the Scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris) species and one refers to Birch (Betula Pendula). The table below provides an overview of some structural characteristics of these 11 tree representations. For those RT models capable of representing the 3D architecture of a given tree through a series of geometric primitives the last lines of this table contain links to data files with detailed specifications of the foliage and wood structural properties of the Järvselja Scots Pine forest (summer) trees.

tree identifierPISY1PISY2PISY3PISY4PISY5PISY6PISY7PISY8PISY9PISY10BEPE
tree height [m]10.2111.7813.1814.2815.5416.1916.5817.4017.9718.5610.45
Foliage normal distribution: zenith angle=graph
data
graph
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data
Foliage normal distribution: azimuth angle=graph
data
graph
data
graph
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graph
data
graph
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graph
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graph
data
graph
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graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
height to live/green crown [m]9.019.0911.2611.0811.4911.4811.5911.7011.9711.873.06
crown radiusx
mean [m]:
maximum [m]:
picture
0.15
0.49
picture
0.31
0.75
picture
0.47
1.19
picture
0.51
1.16
picture
0.73
1.72
picture
0.95
2.19
picture
0.96
2.24
picture
1.11
2.51
picture
1.16
2.75
picture
1.42
3.70
picture
0.62
1.43
vertical profile of crown radii* [m]graph
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half-total foliage area of tree# [m²]1.29752.81635.411310.269115.366723.852631.12739.981858.945879.01048.7978
vertical profile of leaf area o [m²]graph
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trunk DBH+ [cm]6.18.711.513.315.118.020.522.627.331.85.4
total wood area of tree [m²]1.55982.66135.59515.745316.452622.519223.661630.358847.028279.86643.1673
vertical profile of wood areao [m²]graph
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dead branch number9336413888000
tree shape image
foliage structure (triangle mesh)filefilefilefilefilefilefilefilefilefilefile
stem structure (triangle mesh)filefilefilefilefilefilefilefilefilefilefile
branch structure (triangle mesh)filefilefilefilefilefilefilefilefilefilefile
= For shoots the zenith angle of the foliage normal is defined as the angle between the vertical and the normal of the inner/main twig of the shoot (for a shoot axis aligned along the z-axis the normal was arbitrarily chosen to lie along the y-axis). Rather than spanning the full range of possible zenith angles (i.e., from 0 to 180 degree) as could be expected for non-flat asymmetric objects, it was chosen to follow the convention of foliage normals pointing only into the upper hemisphere. This is because RAMI participants, that make use of this foliage normal distribution information, will in all likelihood have models where scatterers are represented as flat (disc or equilateral triangle shaped) objects. However, should your model require a description of the foliage normal zenith angle distribution up to 180 degrees then please do not hesitate in contacting us and we will provide this information to you. For both the zenith and azimuth angle distributions the 'graph' link shows an image of the normalised foliage normal distribution versus zenith (or azimuth) angle of the foliage normal. The 'data' files for the zenith and azimuth angle distribution have three columns indicating 1) the upper value of the zenith (or azimuth) angle in a given bin, 2) the fraction of foliage area having a normal in this zenith (or azimuth) angle range, and 3) the fraction of wood area having a normal that falls in this zenith (or azimuth) angle range. Bin angle widths were chosen to be 5 degrees and 10 degrees for zenith and azimuth angles, respectively.
x The crown radius of actual trees is varying with azimuth angle. This can be seen in the various pictures showing a perspective-free nadir view of a given tree located at x=0,y=0 (concentric circles indicate the distance from the origin in steps of 0.25m). The mean and maximum values were computed from the triangle objects making up the 3D trees depicted in the picture in the the fourth-last row of each table column.
* The graphs show the maximum radial distance of foliage elements in a given height interval plotted against the upper height level of that height interval. The data files have five columns: lower-height-of-bin-in-units-of-meters     upper-height-of-bin-in-units-of-meters     minimum_radial-distance_of_foliage-in-units-of-m     maximum_radial-distance_of_foliage-in-units-of-m.     mean_radial-distance_of_foliage-in-units-of-m
# This value corresponds to the one-sided leaf area for flat leaves. For Scots pine trees it corresponds to the sum of the (maximum) silhouettes of all the individual needles in the tree (i.e., half the total needle area per tree).
o The data files have 3 columns: lower-height-of-bin-in-units-of-meters     upper-height-of-bin-in-units-of-meters     area-of-wood-or-foliage-in-units-of-m2.
+ This is the nominal value derived from the inventory data for a tree of this height. The actual value of the tree representations provided in the ASCII files at the bottom of this table might be slightly different.

4) Stand structure

The Järvselja Scots Pine forest is composed of 1120 individual trees. The following table indicates how these trees are distributed among the above tree classes and specifies their respective x,y locations of the tree centers of each tree class in the forest stand. The last row of this table contains an ASCII file with tree rotation and translation information for those RT models capable of ingesting the detailed 3D architecture of the tree models specified in the previous section.

tree identifierPISY1PISY2PISY3PISY4PISY5PISY6PISY7PISY8PISY9PISY10BEPE
tree number per class 8291001492202191931474096
x,y coordinates of tree centers [m,m] datadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadata
tree rotations and translation (ASCII file)x datadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadata
x These files contain pseudo code to rotate individual trees around their z axis and translate them from the origin to the x,y locations specified in the data files of the previous row of this table. Positive rotation angles in these files indicate that when looking down from the positive Z axis towards the origin of the coordinate system a counterclockwise rotation will result in moving the positive x axis towards the positive y axis. The angle of rotation is in the 7th column of these data files (starting the count from 1).


Tree species and locations for the Järvselja Scots pine (summer) stand. The origin of the coordinate system is in the lower left hand side corner of the image.

RAMI participants with 3D RT models capable of representing objects using geometric primitives can download a single compressed ZIP archive with all the tree architectural ASCII information that is listed in the above tables by clicking HERE. Note: The size of the compressed archive is about 9.3 megabytes. It contains 46 ASCII files and can be unzipped using 'WINZIP' on windows or 'unzip' on linux/unix operating systems. Beware that the inflated archive will take up 65.9 Megabytes of storage.

spectral canopy characteristics up

All of the foliage wood and background components in the Järvselja pinestand (summer) scene feature LAMBERTIAN scattering properties. The tables below contains the magnitudes of the reflectance and transmission characteristics of the various canopy components for nineteen different spectral bands. The experimental identifier for the Järvselja Pine Stand (Summer) scene is given by HET07_JPS_SUM_B**_36 where B** relates to the spectral bands (B01, B02, …, B19). An ASCII (text) file that resumes all of this information can be found here.

Scots Pine:

spectral identifierB01B02B03B04B05B06B07B08B09B10
needle reflectance0.061010.063840.11415 0.124930.108550.072030.056820.053490.108660.17748
needle transmittance0.011860.016460.046380.055950.047780.028920.021000.019040.055190.10751
stem reflectanceo0.089930.105520.127830.143490.157910.210450.234010.247930.301990.32663
branch reflectanceo0.083210.099200.128890.150170.169430.233400.252110.257990.314640.35286
 
spectral identifierB11B12B13B14B15B16B17B18B19
needle reflectance0.233060.466110.496980.514760.523150.522420.520950.497120.5
needle transmittance0.150710.299450.299450.326210.337190.338240.338240.333660.5
stem reflectanceo0.342100.398630.413710.453400.553190.569590.576000.587721.0
branch reflectanceo0.378760.469590.485860.514620.564540.571470.574630.585621.0

Birch:

spectral identifierB01B02B03B04B05B06B07B08B09B10
leaf reflectance
(upper side)
0.059770.060370.091720.102660.088430.063660.057630.057300.092330.15630
leaf reflectance
(lower side)
0.092280.107580.185090.199720.182700.137700.111250.102930.184850.25209
leaf transmittance
(both sides)
0.011320.019530.095070.117550.098140.049940.029180.023030.101460.19714
stem reflectanceo0.355090.379720.402570.410540.414960.432510.436340.438050.463450.47211
branch reflectanceo0.071840.077380.089100.094540.098430.108110.100830.098800.161660.21918
 
spectral identifierB11B12B13B14B15B16B17B18B19
leaf reflectance
(upper side)
0.215280.444660.468190.477920.478440.47738 0.476330.472820.5
leaf reflectance
(lower side)
0.298980.462660.477830.481750.479490.477740.476700.465440.5
leaf transmittance
(both sides)
0.262340.444530.461810.470850.480910.482620.483460.487730.5
stem reflectanceo0.479370.490290.495740.509270.538980.546020.548970.566291.0
branch reflectanceo0.254360.350290.366680.399450.464380.474120.478720.501681.0

Background:

spectral identifierB01B02B03B04B05B06B07B08B09B10
background reflectance0.029600.037360.070300.082010.080220.075070.065920.063530.115830.16186
 
spectral identifierB11B12B13B14B15B16B17B18B19
background reflectance0.192500.297990.311550.330170.369110.381370.388330.426731.0
o The transmittance for woody elements (stem and branches) is equal to zero.

illumination characteristics up

The illumination conditions for the Järvselja Scots Pine forest stand relate to the 10th June 2005 at GMT 9:42-9:44. More specifically illumination contains both a direct and an isotropic diffuse component. The direct solar illumination is characterised by a solar zenith angle (SZA) of 36.6 degree and a solar azimuth angle of 299.06 degree. The table below indicates the ratio of isotropic diffuse to total incident radiation for the nineteen different spectral bands:

spectral identifierB01B02B03B04B05B06B07B08B09B10
diffuse/total solar flux ratiox0.212140.155490.124910.111860.100470.074560.066130.062980.057510.05751
 
spectral identifierB11B12B13B14B15B16B17B18B19
diffuse/total solar flux ratiox0.056990.057710.057540.052960.042550.038020.035070.030310.0
x The 'direct/total solar flux ratio' is thus equal to 1 - (diffuse/total solar flux ratio).

The figure below shows a perspective-free view of the Järvselja Scots pine stand with the Cartesian coordinate system and the direction of the incident solar radiation (blue arrow) superimposed. Azimuth angles are counted in an anti-clockwise direction from the positive X-axis towards the positive Y-axis as indicated by the (dotted blue) arc around the origin.


measurement characteristics up

The experimental identifier <EXP> that is needed in the naming of the various measurement results files (see file naming and formatting conventions) for the Järvselja Pine Stand (Summer) scene is given by HET07_JPS_SUM_B**_36 where B** relates to the spectral bands (B01, B02, …, B19). For each one of these spectral bands a series of radiative measurements have to be performed. In addition a lidar experiment and a fisheye experiment are proposed.

The following are the prescribed measurements for the Järvselja Scots Pine stand (Summer):


Prior to the performing of any RT model simulations, please refer to the 'definitions' pages for detailed instructions regarding the angular sign conventions for BRF simulations, as well as other RT model technicalities. Also read the relevant file naming and formatting conventions that must be adhered to by all participants. In addition, RAMI-IV offers participants the possibility to test the compliance of their model-generated results files with these file-naming and formatting convention, prior to their submission via ftp: To do so follow the on-line format checker link that appears in the top navigation bar during the active submission period.

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