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17-May-2022   
Path: RAMI-IV : EXPERIMENTS : ACTUAL CANOPIES : WELLINGTON CITRUS ORCHARD
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Wellington Citrus Orchard: HET14_WCO

This page provides descriptions of the architectural, spectral and illumination related properties of a 9 year old citrus orchard located in Wellington, South Africa (33°36′S 18°56′E). The scene is based on data provided courtesy of Jan Stuckens, Ben Somers and colleagues (from the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in Belgium) who carried out a detailed measurement campaign at this site in 2006/2007 and transferred their findings into a detailed 3D canopy architecture representation suitable for ingestion into RT models. Thus, potential RAMI participants are to treat the information presented on this page as actual 'inventory data', that is, they should identify/extract those parameters and characteristics that are required as input to their canopy reflectance models. In some cases this may mean that simplifications have to be made to the available information, or, that parts of the available information can not be exploited with a given radiative transfer model. Whatever the case may be, all potential RAMI participants should mimic the standard practices that they use when matching actual field measurements to the required set(s) of input parameters of their model(s). If this means that you need more information than provided, please do not hesitate in contacting us. Last but not least, for those 3D models capable of maintaining architectural fidelity down to the individual shoot and branch level a series of ASCII (text) files containing the Cartesian coordinates of various geometric primitives (triangles, spheres and cylinders) and their transformations will be given. This should facilitate the reconstruction of the citrus orchard canopy architecture as it is described on this page.

In order to facilitate the generation of the citrus orchard the information on this page has been subdivided into four different categories. For each one of these categories the relevant descriptions will be contained within a uniquely coloured text frame and can be accessed by clicking on one of the four links below:

architectural
characteristics
spectral
characteristics
illumination
characteristics
measurements
characteristics

In case of difficulties or missing data on this page please do not hesitate in contacting us so that the problems may be resolved as fast as possible.


Architectural information up

1) General canopy characteristics

The Wellington Citrus Orchard scene is generated over an area of approximately 100×100 m² . The center of the coordinate system lies almost in the middle of the scene. The rows of the orchard fall along constant X-coordinate values (i.e., parallel to the Y axis) and are separated by approximatively 4.5 m. In a given row neighbouring trees are separated by approximatively 2.0 m. However, 11% of the potential tree positions are void due to missing trees. Overall, the architectural characteristics of the scene are thus as follows:

Scene dimensions:
(ΔX × ΔY × ΔZ)
108.25 × 103.90 × 4.12 [m × m × m]
(Xmin, Ymin, Zmin) −54.10, −51.95, 0.0 [m, m, m]
(Xmax, Ymax, Zmax) 54.10, 51.95, 4.12 [m, m, m]
Inter-row distance 4.5 [m]
Number of trees in scene 1115 [-]
Leaf Area Index of scene 2.69126 [m² ⁄ m²]
Fractional scene coverage* 0.392 [-]
Inter-tree distance (within a row) 2.0 [m]
*The fractional cover is defined as 1 - direct transmission at zero solar zenith angle.

2) Foliage structure

The table below provides the structural characteristics of the leaves (citrus sinensis L.) that feature within the Wellington Citrus Orchard. Indicated are average properties since the leaves within a single tree vary somewhat in their size and shape.

foliage shape
description:
Average leaf length 8.8 cm ±1.9cm
Average leaf width 60 % of leaf length
mean one-sided foliage area 31.22 cm²
foliage curlo 20%
o Foliage curl in percent is defined as 100 times the length of the leaf divided by the circumference of a cylinder around which it is wrapped. E.g., 0% leaf curl mean - the leaf is flat - and the radius of the imaginary cylinder is infinite. 100% leaf curl mean - both ends of the leaf touch - and the radius of the cylinder around which the leaf is wrapped is equal to leaflength ⁄ 2 π.

3) Tree structure

The Wellington Citrus Orchard is generated on the basis of 10 individual tree representations of the citrus sinensis L. species. The table below provides an overview of some structural characteristics of these 10 tree representations. For those RT models capable of representing the 3D architecture of a given trees through a series of geometric primitives, the last three lines of each table contain links to data files with detailed specifications of the foliage and wood structural properties of the Wellington Citrus Orchard trees.

tree identifierCISI1CISI2CISI3CISI4CISI5CISI6CISI7CISI8CISI9CISI10
tree height [m]2.833.042.863.352.873.263.263.243.264.11
Foliage normal distribution:
zenith angle=
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
Foliage normal distribution:
azimuth angle=
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
height to live/green
crown [m]
0.550.290.370.190.320.350.720.250.330.25
crown radiusx
mean [m]:
maximum [m]:
picture
0.68
1.31
picture
0.77
1.55
picture
0.82
1.60
picture
0.76
1.60
picture
0.61
1.23
picture
0.77
1.52
picture
0.71
1.61
picture
0.78
1.56
picture
0.66
1.39
picture
0.87
1.95
vertical profile
of crown radius* [m]
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
one-sided foliage area
of tree [m²]
11.491319.283632.55442.881815.299823.648323.842935.240424.393937.746
vertical profile of
leaf area o [m²]
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
total wood area of
tree [m²]
6.7426.37668.3089.89956.29177.54065.742013.1278.814818.7717
vertical profile of
wood areao [m²]
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
graph
data
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data
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data
tree shape image
foliage structure (ASCII file)filefilefilefilefilefilefilefilefilefile
wood structure (ASCII file)woodwoodwoodwoodwoodwoodwoodwoodwoodwood
= Rather than spanning the full range of possible zenith angles (i.e., from 0 to 180 degree) as could be expected for non-flat asymmetric objects, it was chosen to follow the convention of foliage normals pointing only into the upper hemisphere. This is because RAMI participants, that make use of this foliage normal distribution information, will in all likelihood have models where scatterers are represented as flat (disc or equilateral triangle shaped) objects. However, should your model require a description of the foliage normal zenith angle distribution up to 180 degrees then please do not hesitate in contacting us and we will provide this information to you. For both the zenith and azimuth angle distributions the 'graph' link shows an image of the normalised foliage normal distribution versus zenith (or azimuth) angle of the foliage normal. The 'data' files for the zenith and azimuth angle distribution have three columns indicating 1) the upper value of the zenith (or azimuth) angle in a given bin, 2) the normalised amount of foliage area having a normal in this zenith (or azimuth) angle range, and 3) the normalised amount of wood area having a normal that falls in this zenith (or azimuth) angle range. Bin angle widths were chosen to be 5 degrees and 10 degrees for zenith and azimuth angles, respectively.
x The crown radius of actual trees is varying with azimuth angle. This can be seen in the various pictures showing a perspective-free nadir view of a given tree located at x=0,y=0 (concentric circles indicate the distance from the origin in steps of 0.25m). The mean and maximum values were computed from the triangle objects making up the 3D trees depicted in the picture in the the third-last row of each table column.
* The graphs show the maximum radial distance of foliage elements in a given height interval plotted against the lower height level of that height interval. The data files have five columns: lower-height-of-bin-in-units-of-meters     upper-height-of-bin-in-units-of-meters     minimum_radial-distance_of_foliage-in-units-of-m     maximum_radial-distance_of_foliage-in-units-of-m.     mean_radial-distance_of_foliage-in-units-of-m
o The data files have 3 columns: lower-height-of-bin-in-units-of-meters     upper-height-of-bin-in-units-of-meters     area-of-wood-or-foliage-in-units-of-m2.

4) Stand structure

The Wellington Citrus Orchard is composed of 1115 individual trees. The following table indicates how these trees are distributed among the above tree classes and specifies the respective x,y locations of the tree centers of each tree class in the scene. The last row of each table contains an ASCII file with tree translation information for those RT models capable of ingesting the detailed 3D architecture of the tree models specified in the previous section.

tree identifierCISI1CISI2CISI3CISI4CISI5CISI6CISI7CISI8CISI9CISI10
tree number per class 104102131122102103110116119106
x,y coordinates of tree centers [m,m] datadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadata


Tree locations for the Wellington Citrus Orchard. The origin of the coordinate system is in the center of the image.

RAMI participants with 3D RT models capable of representing objects using geometric primitives can download a single compressed ZIP archive with all the tree architectural ASCII information that is listed in the above tables by clicking HERE. Note: The size of the compressed archive is about 12 megabytes. It contains 30 ASCII files and can be unzipped using 'WINZIP' on windows or 'unzip' on linux/unix operating systems. Beware that the inflated archive will take up 80 Megabytes of storage.

spectral canopy characteristics up

Each one of the ten trees in the Wellington Citrus Orchard scene features distinct foliage spectral properties. All of the foliage, wood and background components in the Wellington Citrus Orchard scene feature LAMBERTIAN scattering properties. The tables below contains various spectral characteristics for nineteen different spectral bands. The experimental identifier for the Wellington Citrus Orchard scene is given by HET14_WCO_$$$_B**_## where $$$ relates to the solar azimuth angle, B** relates to the spectral bands (B01, B02, …, B19) and ## relates to the solar zenith angle. A text file that resumes all of the information in this table can be found here.

foliage:

spectral identifierB01B02B03B04B05B06B07B08B09B10
CISI1 leaf reflectance0.042940.047390.129660.174620.158890.090330.058700.050430.172360.30665
CISI1 leaf transmittance0.000000.000010.032460.054750.045660.021010.006960.004490.054550.11984
CISI2 leaf reflectance0.040700.043840.111440.150190.134460.075890.053850.048410.145300.26870
CISI2 leaf transmittance0.000000.000100.031510.045400.036440.015060.004330.002610.044010.10475
CISI3 leaf reflectance0.042130.044880.114900.156320.138820.074600.051060.046030.148820.28165
CISI3 leaf transmittance0.000000.000000.024860.043430.035260.014630.004230.002560.042900.10228
CISI4 leaf reflectance0.042760.048640.158790.217830.202850.118410.072090.057950.216160.36594
CISI4 leaf transmittance0.000000.000020.047480.077170.067270.036510.015000.010680.078790.15101
CISI5 leaf reflectance0.046980.051360.140100.200270.191600.118190.079200.064800.207600.35612
CISI5 leaf transmittance0.000000.000000.032110.060960.052750.026910.010110.006930.063450.12936
CISI6 leaf reflectance0.046210.052250.125720.166230.153000.095670.071030.062200.161040.27964
CISI6 leaf transmittance0.000000.000010.031890.052570.043550.019610.006290.004000.052240.11673
CISI7 leaf reflectance0.037670.039020.103680.139210.120640.061870.042350.039120.129550.25343
CISI7 leaf transmittance0.000000.000010.026260.043170.034600.013830.003790.002230.041860.10193
CISI8 leaf reflectance0.038100.039760.094600.125470.108690.057980.042330.039750.117840.23170
CISI8 leaf transmittance0.000000.000020.024140.036910.028790.010550.002570.001420.035280.09130
CISI9 leaf reflectance0.043050.048310.154150.217190.204740.120180.071500.057200.229840.38880
CISI9 leaf transmittance0.000000.000000.036280.066230.057710.030450.011990.008390.068890.13621
CISI10 leaf reflectance0.040300.044570.134450.185790.170940.096670.060570.050330.182810.32631
CISI10 leaf transmittance0.000000.000010.033260.057710.048780.023420.008200.005440.058270.12404
 
spectral identifierB11B12B13B14B15B16B17B18B19
CISI1 leaf reflectance0.390250.610790.629640.637440.644080.643620.643450.630710.5
CISI1 leaf transmittance0.165260.296900.310100.320240.330660.331710.331920.327570.5
CISI2 leaf reflectance0.352630.600190.622850.631730.638500.637920.637830.626910.5
CISI2 leaf transmittance0.150340.295200.310330.321100.331600.332670.332900.328950.5
CISI3 leaf reflectance0.370230.612100.633240.641970.648490.647980.647840.635910.5
CISI3 leaf transmittance0.146840.287470.302140.312780.323360.324440.324670.320740.5
CISI4 leaf reflectance0.446320.616970.629180.634340.639850.639000.638750.625110.5
CISI4 leaf transmittance0.194980.305670.316200.325320.335390.336410.336640.332800.5
CISI5 leaf reflectance0.440500.630390.644770.650240.655430.654470.654150.641860.5
CISI5 leaf transmittance0.171760.284400.295520.305220.316140.317260.317510.313640.5
CISI6 leaf reflectance0.359290.600860.624360.634640.640890.640140.639920.627710.5
CISI6 leaf transmittance0.162360.297490.311210.321680.332450.333530.333750.329370.5
CISI7 leaf reflectance0.339590.592550.616040.625670.632200.631630.631470.619890.5
CISI7 leaf transmittance0.148000.298550.314470.325520.336160.337270.337530.334150.5
CISI8 leaf reflectance0.315340.584550.611450.623590.631410.630790.630660.618880.5
CISI8 leaf transmittance0.136660.295910.313450.325130.335950.337060.337300.333530.5
CISI9 leaf reflectance0.471560.638370.649950.654750.659410.658370.657990.642860.5
CISI9 leaf transmittance0.178210.286170.296660.305920.316370.317440.317680.313870.5
CISI10 leaf reflectance0.411800.614190.630480.638720.648750.648050.647880.634580.5
CISI10 leaf transmittance0.168330.291770.303980.313740.324090.325140.325370.321420.5

wood:

spectral identifierB01B02B03B04B05B06B07B08B09B10
CISI* wood reflectance0.070520.091530.128610.146110.156530.183060.180500.178440.252070.28567
 
spectral identifierB11B12B13B14B15B16B17B18B19
CISI* wood reflectance0.300760.345850.357290.388360.479280.496910.503210.547961.0

background:

spectral identifierB01B02B03B04B05B06B07B08B09B10
background reflectance0.067430.076780.122330.137880.133820.124640.121420.121060.153620.18914
 
spectral identifierB11B12B13B14B15B16B17B18B19
background reflectance 0.215930.324950.338780.352020.371590.375010.377210.397221.0

illumination characteristics up

Five different illumination conditions are to be simulated for the Wellington Citrus Orchard. More specifically the solar zenith angle (SZA) is 0, 20 or 50 degrees and the solar azimuth angle is equal to 0 or 90 degree. Only direct solar radiation is to be considered in these experiments.

The experimental identifier <EXP> that is needed in the naming of the various measurement results files (see file naming and formatting conventions) for the Wellington Citrus Orchard scene is given by HET14_WCO_$$$_B**_## where $$$ relates to the solar azimuth angle, B** relates to the spectral bands (B01, B02, …, B19) and ## relates to the solar zenith angle. The following image shows the experimental identifiers of the various experiments (right hand side) together with the correct solar azimuth (yellow) and zenith (white) angle overlaid onto the orchard geometry (left hand side).

measurement characteristics up

The experimental identifier <EXP> that is needed in the naming of the various measurement results files (see file naming and formatting conventions) for the Wellington Citrus Orchard scene scene is given by HET14_WCO_$$$_B**_## where $$$ relates to the solar azimuth angle, B** relates to the spectral bands (B01, B02, …, B19) and ## relates to the solar zenith angle. For each one of these scenarios a series of radiative measurements should be performed. In addition a lidar experiment, and a fisheye experiment are proposed.

The following are the prescribed measurements for the Wellington Citrus Orchard:


Prior to the performing of any RT model simulations, please refer to the 'definitions' pages for detailed instructions regarding the angular sign conventions for BRF simulations, as well as other RT model technicalities. Also read the relevant file naming and formatting conventions that must be adhered to by all participants. In addition, RAMI-IV offers participants the possibility to test the compliance of their model-generated results files with these file-naming and formatting convention, prior to their submission via ftp: To do so follow the on-line format checker link that appears in the top navigation bar during the active submission period.

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